The removal of all intentionally added lead and cadmium does not, however, make them lead/cadmium free.
There is a very small amount of lead, cadmium and possibly other metals that make their way through the carbonyl nickel process and ends up as a tramp contaminant in the nickel powder which is then dissolved to make Plating Grade Liquid Nickel Sulfate CLNS).
A major supplier of liquid nickel sulfate to many electroless nickel formulators, lists
both metals as one part per million (1 ppm) MAXIMUM. The actual levels are more
like 0. 1 ppm but have a tendency to increase when the baths age. A study is under
way to determine the levels both in the bath and the deposit.